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Above: The challenge ofmaking habitatssustainableLeft:Dr Manmohan Singhcreation of "green standards" relating to makinghabitats sustainable and having the Municipal Lawamended to make them enforceable. The second major area would be the promotion ofpublic transport in our major cities for which we madea beginning through the stimulus package. We need toreorient city development plans to make themfacilitative of sustainable habitats. We need to focus onwaste recycling and new technologies that createenergy from waste. There will also be a set of complementary actions inthe areas of capacity building, including changes inthe curriculum to create green engineeringprofessionals. I think that some of the institutionalarrangements proposed to be set up at the Central,State and District levels require some discussion.There is inadequate or no political representation inthese bodies. For the Mission to succeed at the ground level, strong political support is required and peoples'representative should be co-opted into the process of planning, implementing and monitoring the Mission activities. It is a time that we address these tasks with the urgency they deserve and I amsure that through the deliberations of this Council wecan now finalise the two Missions and begin toimplement them. nThis is an edited version of a speech Prime MinisterSingh delivered on 28 May 2010 in New Delhi at themeeting of the Council on Climate Change.

" "EVERYTHINGTHAT CAN REDUCE CARBONEMISSIONS MUSTBE BROUGHT INTO PLAYoday, nations are striving to liberatethemselves from overdependence onfossil fuels. It, therefore, makes a perfectsense to tap sources of energy that do notadd further to the problem of rising carbon emissionsand overheating of the planet.There is no longer any doubt that, we are alreadybeginning to feel the impacts of the reality of climatechange. Failure on the part of the internationalcommunity to mitigate and to adapt to climate change,will lead to terrible devastation. It could, for instance,cause the sea level to rise and make small islands andlarge areas of coastal land disappear under water. Itcould lead to changes in weather patterns, that couldinflict so much human suffering, and severe damage tothe world's food productivity. And all of this because the level of carbon emissionsinto the atmosphere, since the start of the industrialrevolution in the 19th century, has risen to dangerouslevels. All of us know that to a very large extent, this isdue to the increasingly intensive burning of fossil-based fuels to support human economic activity, andreckless consumption. And to many countries, including Indonesia, a largepart of the solution to that problem is a successfultapping of vast resources of geothermal energy. Andindeed, if we find the ways and means of tapping thesegeothermal energy resources and make full use ofthem, there would be substantially less carbonemissions in the atmosphere of our planet. After the United States with close to 4,000 MW andPhilippines utilising approximately 2,000 MW,Indonesia is currently only using 1,100 MW ofgeothermal energy. This is only some 4.2 per cent ofour geothermal reserves, which constitute about 40per cent of the world's geothermal potential. This is going to change. It is my intention for Indonesiato become the largest user of geothermal energy. Weurgently need to accelerate geothermal development inour country. But this is a task that the Governmentalone cannot carry out. We need the help of allstakeholders. This is where I would like to express ourthanks and appreciation to our development partners,JICA, Germany, France, the Netherlands, The ADB and the World Bank, who all have offered technicalassistance and low interest loans for this purpose. We already have in place a set of long term policies forthe development of geothermal energy, as embodied inthe Geothermal Development Roadmap of 2004-2025. We do envision that by 2025, about five percent of our national energy needs will be met throughthe use of geothermal energy. We have taken several important steps toward thatgoal. These include the four projects covered by theSteam Purchase Agreement between PT PLN and PTPertamina Geothermal Energy, the establishment offinancing arrangements with the World Bank for thetapping of geothermal energy, and the delegation ofauthority over significant geothermal energy reserves,to the provincial governments of Central Java, SouthSumatera and West Lampung. These activities, involving a total investment ofUS$8.6 billion, will eventually produce some 2,885MW of power. That will help close the 4,500 MWenergy gap that Indonesia is now contending with, as aresult of its rapid economic development. The reduction in emissions from the pursuit of theseGEOTHERMAL RESOURCES: A PART OF THE CLIMATE SOLUTION104G-20 MEMBERSDR SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO, PRESIDENT, REPUBLIC OF INDONESIATPhoto: UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras