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" "WHILE WERECOGNISE THATTHE VIABILITY OFOUR BIOFUELS INDUSTRY WILL BE SUCCESSFULONLY IF FIRSTGENERATION BIO-FUELS SUCH ASCORN ETHANOLARE VIABLE, WEALSO KNOW THATTHERE IS GREATPOTENTIAL TO USEOTHER FEED-STOCKS IN INCLUDING NON-GRAIN FEED-STOCKS FORBIOFUELSs part of building the clean energy future,the US Administration has set forth on abiofuels programme to build a moresustainable transportation sector. TheRenewable Fuels Standard programme has and willcontinue to significantly increase the volume ofbiofuels in our transportation fuel supply - with a goalof 36 billion gallons by 2022.Congress has established specific greenhouse gasreduction thresholds that must be achieved byrenewable fuels in order to qualify for the programme.It is an ambitious programme, but we expect it to resultin significant benefits, especially as advanced andcellulosic fuels begin to penetrate the market. It will decrease oil imports by over US$40 billion, andresult in energy security benefits of nearly US$3billion. In 2022, it will reduce our carbon emissions by138 million metric tonnes - equivalent to removingabout 27 million cars from the road. It will also expandthe market for agricultural products and otherbiomass, and open new markets for advanced biofuels.This will help increase net farm income by US$13billion dollars in 2022 - a much needed economicboost for a number of struggling rural areas across the country.Just last week I had a chance to meet with themembers of a farming community in Americus,Georgia. They told me about their enthusiasm not justfor the jobs and economic activity of renewable fuels.But they also want the opportunity to be a part ofstrengthening our energy security. As people who liveoff the land, they understand the importance ofprotecting the planet.This programme will also drive research, investmentand innovation in the development of the secondgeneration of biofuels. While we recognise that theviability of our biofuels industry will be successful onlyif first generation biofuels such as corn ethanol areviable, we also know that there is great potential to use other feedstocks in including non-grain feedstocksfor biofuels.By 2022, 15 billion gallons of ethanol can come fromcorn starch. However the majority of the increase in themandate, 16 billion gallons is required to come fromcellulosic-based materials. We need to make moreprogress to develop and commercialise these cellulosicand advanced biofuels in order to fulfill our mandatefor renewable fuels. Just as important we need to make a significant commitment to improvinginfrastructure and consumer knowledge in order toincrease market acceptance. As we proceed, however, we also have a statutorymandate to ensure that these biofuels are producedsustainably - in terms of where we get thefeedstocks.how they are grown, harvested andrefined.and what the overall emissions are associatedwith the entire process. That is why lifecycle analysis issuch an important part of our approach to renewablefuel policy. When Congress established the RFS2requirements in EISA, it specifically directed EPA toevaluate biofuels on the basis of their full lifecyclegreenhouse gas emissions impacts. We were directedto assess both direct and significant indirect impacts -including the impacts on land use from increaseddemand for biofuels.Developing this analysis was a major undertaking.There was no single model available to give us lifecycleanswers. And of course, there were many differentopinions on how to proceed. As always, we felt it wasUSA: MAKING PROGRESS ON BIOFUELS116GLOBAL VOICESLISA P. JACKSON, ADMINISTRATOR, US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA)APhoto: Official White House Photo by Pete Souza

GLOBAL VOICES117Above: Administrator LisaP. Jackson and PresidentBarack Obamacritical to use the strongest models and tools and thebest science available.We held hundreds of meetings with stakeholders andexperts to make sure we had the latest information andfully appreciated the range of issues to consider. Weconducted a formal peer review of the lifecyclemethodology.And, finally, we received thousands of comments thathelped us shape our final assessments.Our process in the lifecycle analysis embodies theprinciples that I have made central to the way we carryout our work. We used the best science available indeveloping our proposal. We subjected our assessmentto an independent peer review. We solicited extensivecomments on our proposal.Using this analysis, we have determined that manybiofuels, like soy-based biodiesel, cellulosic biofuelsand, of course, corn ethanol can achieve significantGHG reductions when compared to the fuels they are replacing. As we go forward - and as the state of science in thisarea evolves - we are committed to refining andupdating our methodologies and data. As wecommitted in our rule-making we are moving forwardto get further scientific advice from the NationalAcademy of Sciences. We are also committed toevaluating new technology, new feedstocks and newpathways as they are developed. EPA is on track tocomplete the lifecycle analysis on a number ofadditional biofuels - canola, sorghum, palm oil, and pulp wood this year. The final rule also lays out a petition process to address other pathways in the future. Let me also say that, in recent months, we haveengaged in extensive outreach with the fuel industry tomake sure that successful analysis leads to successfulimplementation of the programme. I know the mainissue on your minds is higher blends of ethanol - suchas E15. As you know, EPA is working hard on a numberof fronts to make a decision on the E15 waiver petitionfrom Growth Energy. The timing of that decision at EPA is directly linked tothe timing of the Department of Energy (DOE) testing.DOE, with guidance from EPA, is conducting anunprecedented multi-million dollar test program tolook at theimpacts E15 has on vehicles. The firstphase of this DOE programme - the testing of 19vehicle models that meet the Tier 2 standards - shouldbe completed by the end of September, and allindications are the testing remains on schedule. Oncethe testing is completed, EPA will make a decisionwhether to grant a waiver to allow E15 in 2007 andlater vehicles. In addition, DOE is testing vehicle models builtbetween 2001 and 2006. That test programme isexpected to be completed by the end of November, atwhich point we expect to make a decision on a waiverthat would cover 2001 to 2006 model year vehicles. Inconjunction with the waiver decisions EPA will alsomove forward on a rule to provide for proper fuellabeling to reduce the potential misfueling. As with all of our actions we intend to take these deliberatelyand actions based on all of the information necessaryto make a sound decision that will serve the public interest. nThis article is excerpted from Administrator Lisa P.Jackson's Remarks to Growth Energy delivered on 13September 2010.