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THE NEW ECONOMY015countries are moving to a common ground.Fifth, and last, governments agree that pledges need tobe captured in a binding manner. But they still need towork out how to do that. Binding agreements amonggovernments can be on an international level, on anational level, or can be based on compliance withrules and regulations. They could also involve a mix ofall three, and governments are currently consideringthem all.It is important to note that the combination of the lasttwo elements - accountability and binding action - isessential for societies, science, and business to beconfident that clean, green strategies are beingpursued and will be rewarded globally, as well as locally.The challenge governments face is not a small one.What is at stake is the long-term, sustainable future of humanity.We know the milestones science has set - by when andby how much emissions must drop to have a chance ofavoiding the worst. This requires nothing less than anenergy revolution both in production and consumption.Governments have been building common groundsince the UNFCCC began in Rio in 1992, and thenconsecutively at major gatherings in Berlin, Kyoto,Marrakesh, Bali, Copenhagen and now Cancún. Theidea that a single magic, global agreement could solveall climate issues does not do justice to the crucialsteps already achieved and, most importantly,dangerously ignores the need to keep innovating.In Cancún, governments can take the next essentialstep to achieve concrete and unmistakable progresstoward a sustainable future for all. nABOUT THE AUTHORChristiana Figueres was appointed as the new Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on 17 May 2010. The appointment was endorsed by the Bureau of the Convention. Ms Figueres has been involved in climate change negotiations since 1995. She was a member of the Costa Rican negotiating team and represented Latin America and the Caribbean on the Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism in 2007, before being elected Vice President of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties 2008-2009. She has served on several boards of non-governmental organisations involved in climate change issues, including the Voluntary Carbon Standard. She is also a widely published author on the design of climate solutions, and has been a frequent advisor to the private sector on how to play a leadership role in mitigation. grow healthier, women work easier and families cantalk, read, and write into the evening.Third, industrialised nations can turn their pledges of funding into reality. Last year, these countriespromised US$30 billion in fast-track financing fordeveloping country adaptation and mitigation effortsthrough 2012. Developing nations see the transparentand real allocation of this money as a critical signalthat industrialised nations are committed to progressin the broader negotiations. Industrialised countriesalso pledged to find ways and means to raise US$100billion a year by the year 2020. Fourth, countries want to see that what they agree witheach other is measured, reported and verified in atransparent and accountable way. The concept of"MRV", as it is called in the negotiations, is notcomplex. Countries simply want to know that what theysee is what they get. Progress here will be a gauge that

" "THE WORLD'SMOST POWERFULSUPERCOMPUTERSAND BROADLYAVAILABLE EXISTINGTECHNOLOGIESSUCH AS CELLPHONES AND PCsALL HAVE A ROLETO PLAY IN ENABLING ACLEAN ENERGYECOSYSTEM t Microsoft, we see informationtechnology (IT) as a key tool to helpaddress the daunting energy and climatechallenges the world faces. This vision isincreasingly shared by environmental organisations,government policymakers and industry leaders. A climate report by the World Wildlife Fund noted:"There is probably no other sector where theopportunity to provide solutions with dramaticemission reduction potential is as significant" as in theIT sector. As a matter of official policy, the EuropeanCommission declared that IT "has an important role toplay in.reducing emissions and contributing tosustainable growth." To realise this potential,technology and software companies must continue toinnovate towards greener IT that consumes less energy,but also what industry experts have termed "IT forgreen." These are applications and technologysolutions that reduce energy use across all sectors ofthe economy and enable the large scale deployment ofclean energy sources. GREENER ITAdvances in both hardware and software havedramatically increased the energy efficiency ofcomputing. The leading energy-efficient laptops nowentering the market use less energy than a singlecompact fluorescent lightbulb. However, with morethan 1 billion computers on the planet and 250 millionnew laptops, desktops and servers deployed each year,the IT industry must continue improving the energyefficiency of its products. Microsoft is seeking to help minimise energy use andcarbon emissions while increasing access totechnology in many ways. First, we have improved theenergy efficiency of the Windows® operating systemwith increasingly sophisticated energy-saving featuresand are building new requirements for energyefficiency into our product design process for futureoperating systems. Windows 7 has been designed withenergy efficiency in mind. Microsoft madeimprovements to the core operating system andworked with industry partners to help improve theenergy efficiency of the whole platform. Windows 7provides both new and existing useful tools for ITprofessionals to effectively deploy power managementpolicies and troubleshoot energy efficiency problems.As more computing moves to Internet-based cloud-computing service platforms, Microsoft is payingparticular attention to addressing energy use andenvironmental impacts of our datacentres. By usingcutting-edge sensor and monitoring equipment, newhigh-efficiency container-based datacentre designsand air cooling systems that reduce the need formechanical chillers, Microsoft's new datacentresconsume 50 per cent less energy for the same level ofoutput than datacentres built just three years ago. Ournewly opened datacentre in Dublin is officiallyrecognised by the European Commission's SustainableEnergy Europe Campaign as a best practice for energyefficiency and will average 1.25 in Power UseEffectiveness (PUE), an industry metric of datacentreenergy efficiency where 1 represents optimal energyuse. (The datacentre industry average for PUE is 2;Microsoft datacentres as a whole currently average1.53.) Microsoft also helped develop the EU Code of Conductfor Data Centres, a voluntary set of guidelines designedto help organisations implement energy efficiency bestpractices and use energy-efficient equipment. AndPOWERING THE FUTURE:TRANSFORMING ENERGY USE THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY016THE NEW ECONOMYMICROSOFTA