page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132

" "THE WORLD'SMOST POWERFULSUPERCOMPUTERSAND BROADLYAVAILABLE EXISTINGTECHNOLOGIESSUCH AS CELLPHONES AND PCsALL HAVE A ROLETO PLAY IN ENABLING ACLEAN ENERGYECOSYSTEM t Microsoft, we see informationtechnology (IT) as a key tool to helpaddress the daunting energy and climatechallenges the world faces. This vision isincreasingly shared by environmental organisations,government policymakers and industry leaders. A climate report by the World Wildlife Fund noted:"There is probably no other sector where theopportunity to provide solutions with dramaticemission reduction potential is as significant" as in theIT sector. As a matter of official policy, the EuropeanCommission declared that IT "has an important role toplay in.reducing emissions and contributing tosustainable growth." To realise this potential,technology and software companies must continue toinnovate towards greener IT that consumes less energy,but also what industry experts have termed "IT forgreen." These are applications and technologysolutions that reduce energy use across all sectors ofthe economy and enable the large scale deployment ofclean energy sources. GREENER ITAdvances in both hardware and software havedramatically increased the energy efficiency ofcomputing. The leading energy-efficient laptops nowentering the market use less energy than a singlecompact fluorescent lightbulb. However, with morethan 1 billion computers on the planet and 250 millionnew laptops, desktops and servers deployed each year,the IT industry must continue improving the energyefficiency of its products. Microsoft is seeking to help minimise energy use andcarbon emissions while increasing access totechnology in many ways. First, we have improved theenergy efficiency of the Windows® operating systemwith increasingly sophisticated energy-saving featuresand are building new requirements for energyefficiency into our product design process for futureoperating systems. Windows 7 has been designed withenergy efficiency in mind. Microsoft madeimprovements to the core operating system andworked with industry partners to help improve theenergy efficiency of the whole platform. Windows 7provides both new and existing useful tools for ITprofessionals to effectively deploy power managementpolicies and troubleshoot energy efficiency problems.As more computing moves to Internet-based cloud-computing service platforms, Microsoft is payingparticular attention to addressing energy use andenvironmental impacts of our datacentres. By usingcutting-edge sensor and monitoring equipment, newhigh-efficiency container-based datacentre designsand air cooling systems that reduce the need formechanical chillers, Microsoft's new datacentresconsume 50 per cent less energy for the same level ofoutput than datacentres built just three years ago. Ournewly opened datacentre in Dublin is officiallyrecognised by the European Commission's SustainableEnergy Europe Campaign as a best practice for energyefficiency and will average 1.25 in Power UseEffectiveness (PUE), an industry metric of datacentreenergy efficiency where 1 represents optimal energyuse. (The datacentre industry average for PUE is 2;Microsoft datacentres as a whole currently average1.53.) Microsoft also helped develop the EU Code of Conductfor Data Centres, a voluntary set of guidelines designedto help organisations implement energy efficiency bestpractices and use energy-efficient equipment. AndPOWERING THE FUTURE:TRANSFORMING ENERGY USE THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY016THE NEW ECONOMYMICROSOFTA

THE NEW ECONOMY017Microsoft Research is supporting cutting-edgeresearch projects to advance energy efficiency in datacentres and other computing environments andpublicly shares their results.Even energy-efficient data centres use lots ofelectricity, but interestingly we found that the shifttowards data centre-based cloud computing can resultin significant net energy savings overall. Why? In manybusinesses today, applications often run on serversthat are typically using only about 10 per cent of theircapacity with lots of energy wasted. A new study by Accenture and the environmentalconsulting firm WSP found that when organisationsmove common business applications, like MicrosoftExchange for email, from their own servers to aMicrosoft hosted cloud, they can achieve significanttotal energy savings. Large enterprises can expect tocut their energy use per user by at least 30 per cent,and in the case of small businesses, the result is evenmore dramatic, with potential savings of up to 90 per cent. A good analogy for this is mass transit, where theenergy savings from moving thousands of peoplearound on shared infrastructure instead of single-occupancy vehicles has a significant environmentalimpact. The same is true in cloud computing. We canrealise huge economies of scale that result in realenergy savings as more services move to the cloud. IT FOR GREEN IT also has a critical role to play in enabling emissionsreductions in a wide range of sectors. The widely-citedSmart 2020 analysis conducted by McKinsey &Company and published by The Climate Group andGlobal e-Sustainability Initiative found that ITsolutions to reduce energy use in industries, buildings,transportation and homes could reduce greenhousegas emissions by 15 per cent by 2020.Microsoft sees particular potential in energy-savingapplications that take advantage of widely availableexisting technology. A recent World Wildlife Fund studyfound that increasing virtual meetings andtelecommuting using existing technology couldeliminate more than 3 billion tonnes of CO2 emissionsover the next few decades. In our own experience,Microsoft found that by encouraging employees to useour unified communications telework tools in place oftravel, we reduced travel per employee 10 per cent inour early deployments, eliminating 100 million milesof air travel and 17,000 metric tonnes of CO2emissions a year. The power of software combined with increasinglysmart appliances and inexpensive sensors can alsomake an important difference in how peopleunderstand and change their energy use at home. Weenvision easy-to-use "control panels" on homecomputers and cell phones that let people managetheir household appliances, heat and lighting from anylocation. Ultimately, intelligent control systems willoptimise home energy use based on the weatherreport, activities on your calendar and a host of otherfactors. Such systems could sense your location fromyour cell phone and begin heating or cooling yourhouse as you begin your commute home and turn onyour lights as you pull into your driveway. These demand-side IT solutions also can help enabledeployment of intermittent renewable energy sourceslike solar and wind. IT-enabled appliances combinedwith smart metres and informed consumers can shiftenergy demand from appliances and non-time-sensitive uses to periods of peak wind or solargeneration. The growth potential of plug-in electricvehicles makes the issue of demand elasticityparticularly important. Ford Motor Company ispartnering with Microsoft on technology for its newFord Focus electric vehicles that enables drivers toprogram when to recharge their vehicle, for how longand at what utility rate. Using this technology, driversor utilities can set vehicles to charge during off-peakhours when electricity is cheaper or when the grid isproviding the most renewable energy. CONCLUSIONThe world's most powerful supercomputers andbroadly available existing technologies such as cellphones and PCs all have a role to play in enabling aclean energy ecosystem. Microsoft is investing in thedevelopment of a range of business and consumersolutions and services that contribute to solving thesechallenging issues. We welcome the chance to worktogether on these solutions with our partners,customers, suppliers, policymakers and other key stakeholders. nFor more information about Microsoft's work in thisarea, please visit www.microsoft.com/environment.