up phase. Especially Brazil and China are very wellpositioned when it comes to economic performancecombined with environmental protection. China hasset itself the national goal of increasing energyefficiency and is greatly accelerating the expansion ofrenewable energy technologies like wind, solar andhydroelectric power. In much of the world, people areaccepting the fact that the cost of failing to act wouldin the long run far exceed the cost of the requiredinvestments in green technologies today. Siemens is the market leader for green solutions in many segments - from power generation andtransmission to energy usage in industry, buildings andtransportation - and offers its services as a partner togovernments and cities. Siemens earned roughly ?28 billion in fiscal 2010 from its environmentalproducts. This accounts for more than one third of thecompany's revenue. Customers benefit from Siemens'successful technologies in many ways. In 2010 alone,they will prevent 267 million tonnes of CO2 emissionsINNOVATION TECHNOLOGY053overlooks important positive aspects of theseconferences; one of which is the public awareness thatthey generate. Throughout the world, climate protectionhas become more important than ever. The Cancúnconference is another major step in the right direction.Often overlooked as well is the fact that localpoliticians in many large cities are alreadyimplementing targeted and efficient actions thatparallel government efforts. Miami, the southernmostmetropolis in the United States, plans to cut CO2emissions by 25 per cent by 2020 compared to the2006 level, by increasing their use of solar energy andexpanding the mass transit network. Miami earned thetitle of "cleanest city in America" in 2008. Mexico isalso hard at work. Twenty years ago, the United Nationsnamed Mexico City the most polluted city in the world - and by 2022 it plans to be the greenest city inLatin America.The emerging nations find themselves in a rapid catch-?
worldwide - which is equal to the entire annual outputof the world metropolises of Hong Kong, London, NewYork, Tokyo, Delhi and Singapore. More efficient traffic is particularly important for cities. From São Paulo and Mexico City to New York, the megacities of this world share one problem:traffic is on the verge of collapse - and it is responsiblefor roughly 16 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions.As just one response to this challenge, Siemens has added electric motors to London's double-decker buses that make use of stored braking energy. This Siemens development is expected toreplace all of London's 8,000 conventional buses over the long term. It is currently being used in many countries around the world, from the UnitedStates and Brazil to China and Germany. The success of this hybrid technology: up to 40 per cent lower emissions and about 30 per cent less fuel consumption.Yet mass transit is not the only area where cities willlessen environmental impacts. We will be seeing anever greater number of electric vehicles on the streets.Electric motors use energy about three times moreefficiently than internal combustion engines. And theydo much more: when wind and solar power plantsproduce too much energy at times of low demand,electric cars can temporarily store this energy in theirbatteries and profitably feed it into the grid as needed.Renewable energy sources will guarantee that theoperation of electric cars is extremely environment-friendly - and the cars, in turn, will ensure that theshare of renewable energy in the power mix can grow.This is a real win-win situation!However, intelligent power grids are needed to makethis future a reality. These so-called smart grids, whichwill control the complex power flows of the future andpermit greater transparency as well as flexible billingmodels, are an important piece in the energy supplypuzzle of the future. In the future, buildings will also be integrated into theintelligent energy grids. Heating, air conditioning,ventilation and lighting account for roughly 40 per centof energy consumption and just under 20 per cent ofall greenhouse gas emissions. The New York TimesBuilding in Manhattan demonstrates that this does not have to be the case. An automatic buildingmanagement system from Siemens controls the airconditioning, water cooling, heating and powergeneration functions. It takes into account not only theinternal and external temperature, but also buildingoccupancy, the angle of incident sunlight, and thepresent capacity of the combined heat and power andsolar plant. A network of hundreds of sensorsthroughout the complex determines all of thisinformation in real time. What is remarkable is thatintelligent building technologies like this can cutenergy consumption by up to 40 per cent.INNOVATION 054TECHNOLOGYRight: Shining brightly,thanks to 12,000OSRAM LEDs, the arch ofthe stadium in Durbansymbolises the newSouth Africa anddemonstrates the multi-faceted possibilitiesassociated with energy-efficient urban design.Below:Peter Loescher,CEO Siemens Large-scale projects of this type are not luxuries in rich industrial countries, but even less affluentmunicipalities can afford to modernise their buildingtechnology. The Siemens solution for this type ofmodernisation is known as performance contracting.The first step is to define the energy saving goals. If thesavings justify the investment, an energy managementagreement is concluded. The investment is paid for ininstallments using a portion of the contractuallypromised savings in energy and operating costs.Therefore the customer does not have to invest a singlecent of their own money. Performance contractingsolutions have also become recognised for other typesof modernisation work, like converting traffic lightsystems from incandescent bulbs to the much moreefficient and longer-lasting light-emitting diodes.Climate protection is likely to be most evident in thegeneration of clean energy than in any other segment.Wind power plants offer a practically inexhaustiblepotential in this area. As the market leader in offshorewind power, with a current order volume worth roughlyPhotos: Siemens AG