help increase scale and thereby reduce costs, inparticular of batteries.One thing is certain: progress will depend on taking action and applying an integrated approach worldwide,involving all relevant parts and stakeholders of thetransport sector. The Asian Development Bank recentlywrote in an authoritative study on the subject: "There is agrowing consensus among transportation, environmental,and development experts and stakeholders that actionsmust be taken on all possible fronts to move towardsustainable low-carbon transportation, pursuing an'avoid-shift-improve' strategy." As policymakers address CO2 reductions, it is important to emphasise that different approaches arefavoured in different regions of the world due tocharacteristics of local economies, local culture andinfrastructure, so there is no single right approach.Developed and developing countries have different needsand capacities. Customer demands differ as well, and transport infrastructure needs to be adapted to localand regional geography, population and transport needs.Urban and rural areas often need to find differentsolutions. Moreover, the kind of energy available is farfrom the same in different regions. A world of views existon reducing transportation CO2, and regional and countryautomobile associations can provide their perspectives onthe merits of various options in their markets.Where the interests converge is at theacknowledgement of common priorities. As the worldcomes together in Mexico, all eyes are once morefocussed on making progress towards carbon emissionreduction. Another joint priority remains, clearly,economic growth. We need to use resources efficiently,including when mitigating climate change. Themeasures taken must be cost-effective, and, what'smore, mobility needs to remain affordable. THE PRIORITIES OF AN INTEGRATEDAPPROACH TO REDUCING CO2EMISSIONS FROM ROAD TRANSPORT:Carbon Signals: Different regions and countriesemploy a variety of methods to communicate theimportance of carbon reductions. To reduce CO2,public policy and the marketplace need to sendconsistent signals to both producers and consumers.Within the transportation sector, technology, fuels andconsumers are inextricably linked. The price of fuelhas a direct impact on sales of energy-efficientvehicles, which often carry greater up-front sales costsdue to added technology. Some countries supporthigher fuel taxes, while other countries supportconsumer incentives to purchase advancedtechnology. While very different approaches, both sendsignals that carbon reduction is a priority. Technology Advancements and Deployment: The vehicleAbove:The developmentand deployment ofadvanced technologiesoffer more choices toconsumers to help reduceCO2 and fuel useBelow:The uptake of newand improvedtechnologies should beencouraged byappropriate fiscal andother incentivesLeft from top to bottom:Dave McCurdy, YoshiyasuNao and Ivan Hodac
AUTOMOTIVE069fleet is becoming more diverse, with growing proportionsof alternative fuel, clean diesel, hybrid and all-electricvehicles and fuel cells. And, auto engineers are makingcontinued improvements to internal combustionengines. The development and deployment of theseadvanced technologies offer more choices to consumersto help reduce CO2 and fuel use. But, new technologiesare still emerging and need continued advancement andbreakthroughs to meet market expectations.Low-carbon Fuels and Energy Providers: Consumersbenefit from more choices for renewable and low-carbon fuels, including biofuels, clean diesel,compressed natural gas (CNG), electricity andhydrogen. Vehicles and fuels form a system, so accessto alternative fuels affects the successful introductionof new types of vehicles. Many technologies willsucceed only if high quality fuels to power them arewidely available and competitively priced. Energy Infrastructure: Looking forward, transportationwill become increasingly dependent on other sectors(e.g., electric utilities) and other technologies (e.g.,wind and solar power) to enable lower carbon fuels. Tomeet market demand for these fuels, the energyinfrastructure needs to be addressed first. Plannedintroductions of new electric vehicles mean theelectricity infrastructure needs to be ready to powerlarge numbers of electric vehicles. Consumers willsoon need charging stations at their homes, and overtime the electrical grid will need to be adapted andextended to accommodate a large volume of electricvehicles and new recharging systems. Consumer Education and Initiatives: Ultimately, it isconsumers making millions of choices every day thatdetermines whether societal goals are met or not.Incentives and education can help encourageconsumers to buy automobiles employing new types oftechnology or powered by alternative fuels. Consumersalso can practice ecodriving to reduce CO2 and fueluse, and this practice benefits all vehicles on the road today, not just new vehicles. And, governmentprogrammes can encourage consumers to participatein a variety of mobility programmes.Electronic or "Smart" Mobility Aids: Technology, whenintegrated within our roadway infrastructure andnetworks, can create the conditions for more efficient- and often safer - mobility. For example, trafficmanagement through intelligent systems connectsvehicles to other vehicles, as well as to traffic plannerswith quick access to an adjustable infrastructure. Thisconnectivity in real-time allows all parties to makeinformed decisions that help alleviate congestion and reduce the resulting environmental impact ofidling vehicles. Linking Personal and Public Transportation: Multi-mode commuting is growing as our cities grow everlarger and consumers employ multiple means to reachjobs and other destinations. Multi-mode travel takesadvantage of the strengths of each type oftransportation. For example, a consumer may ride abike or drive to a "park and ride" lot at a train orsubway station to reach an urban centre. Publictransportation can also deploy new types of vehicletechnology using new fuels. Strategic planning alongwith consumer education and incentives can helpencourage the trend of multi-mode travel. nABOUT THE AUTHORSIvan Hodac has been the Secretary-General of theEuropean Automobile Manufacturers' Association(ACEA) since 2001. Before joining ACEA, he wassenior Vice President and head of Time Warner Europeoffice. Previously, Mr Hodac was the Secretary-General of a trade organisation IFMA/IMACE, SeniorEconomist at Didier & Associates and Assistant at theCollege of Europe, Bruges.Yoshiyasu Nao has been the President and ViceChairman of the Japan Automobile ManufacturersAssociation (JAMA) since 2004. Previously he hasheld numerous positions at Ministry of Economy,Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan. He has alsoworked in Italy as a diplomat, and was managingdirector of the Shokochukin Bank.Dave McCurdy has been the President and CEO of theAlliance of Automobile Manufacturers in Washington,DC, since 2007, after eight years of service as thePresident and CEO of the Electronic IndustriesAlliance (EIA). Prior that, Mr McCurdy served in theUS House of Representatives representingOklahoma's Fourth Congressional District. ACEA, JAMA and the US Auto Alliance represent themajor automobile manufacturers based in Europe,Japan and the United States, with a combined marketshare of 77 per cent of passenger cars sales worldwide.