page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
page 52
page 53
page 54
page 55
page 56
page 57
page 58
page 59
page 60
page 61
page 62
page 63
page 64
page 65
page 66
page 67
page 68
page 69
page 70
page 71
page 72
page 73
page 74
page 75
page 76
page 77
page 78
page 79
page 80
page 81
page 82
page 83
page 84
page 85
page 86
page 87
page 88
page 89
page 90
page 91
page 92
page 93
page 94
page 95
page 96
page 97
page 98
page 99
page 100
page 101
page 102
page 103
page 104
page 105
page 106
page 107
page 108
page 109
page 110
page 111
page 112
page 113
page 114
page 115
page 116
page 117
page 118
page 119
page 120
page 121
page 122
page 123
page 124
page 125
page 126
page 127
page 128
page 129
page 130
page 131
page 132

" "THE SOLUTIONSTARTS WITHGLOBAL LEADERSHIP. AVIATION IS AGLOBAL INDUSTRY.CLIMATE CHANGEIS A GLOBAL PROBLEM. THEONLY EFFECTIVEAPPROACH MUSTALSO BE GLOBALAVIATION073each will be 15-20 per cent more fuel-efficient thanthe aircraft they replace. Since 2004, IATA has workedwith governments and air navigation service providersto shorten some 2,000 routes. We collected industrybest practice on fuel management. And then weworked with airlines to implement the best practicesachieving fuel efficiency gains averaging five per centand in some cases reaching 14 per cent. Combined,these efforts have saved at least 76 million tonnes ofCO2 since 2004.AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENTWe could do much more if governments were morecommitted. For decades, we have called on Europeangovernments to manage their airspace with a SingleEuropean Sky. This alone would cut aviation's emissionsby 16 million tonnes each year. The lack of political willto move this forward is a costly disappointment forairlines and the environment. There are similar missedopportunities in other parts of the world. These includethe long-awaited NextGen air traffic managementsystem in the US and the need for a more efficient wayof handling air traffic in China's Pearl River Delta.One of the most promising possibilities to achieveemission reductions is with sustainable biofuels.Sustainable biofuels made from jatropha, camelina oralgae have the potential to reduce aviation's carbonfootprint by up to 80 per cent. In 2007 this was adream. Today sustainable biofuels are a tested realitywith certification expected in a matter of months. Thechallenge will be commercialisation. Airlines will use66 billion gallons of fuel this year, and by 2020, wewant six per cent of this to be sustainable biofuels.Governments must now set the legal and fiscalframework to make it happen.A ROLE MODEL WITH TARGETSA strategy cannot deliver long-term results withouttargets. The aviation industry took the bold step to setthree sequential targets on climate change, agreeing to:. improve fuel efficiency by an average of 1.5 per centannually to 2020;. cap net emissions from 2020 with carbon-neutralgrowth, and. cut our net emissions in half by 2050 compared to2005. No other industrial sector has set similar global targets.UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has commendedthe aviation industry as a role model for other industries.GOVERNMENTSThe responsibility for dealing with aviation'sinternational emissions rests with the InternationalCivil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), in coordination withthe United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange (UNFCC). Unlike ground-based industries,aviation emits carbon across borders and over the highseas. It can only be managed with a global approach.This was determined in the Kyoto protocol andconfirmed by Christiana Figueres, Executive Directorof the UNFCCC.On 8 October 2010, ICAO achieved an historicresolution. ICAO's 190 member states agreed that theindustry should improve fuel efficiency by two per centannually to 2050 and to develop a global frameworkfor economic measures. It also achieved an agreementon the industry's target of capping emissions from2020. This resolution is inclusive and mindful of thediffering needs of developed and developing nations.This is the first and only global agreement bygovernments to manage the emissions of an industrialsector. By working together, I am confident that we canachieve its goals. Even the two per cent annual fuelefficiency improvement is possible, if governmentscome to the table with air traffic management solutions(like the Single European Sky) to bridge the 0.5 percent gap with the industry's fuel efficiency target. Aviation will arrive in at the UNFCCC meetings inCancĂșn, Mexico, with its homework done. With ICAOwe will present our impressive progress to date and thefuture targets that we have set. And we will have fourclear messages for governments:. Support emissions reductions with improvements inair traffic management.. Keep focused on a global approach: reject ineffectiveregional schemes and concentrate on developing aglobal framework for economic measures under ICAO.. Do not use the industry as a cash cow. Airlines areoperating on a fragile margin of only 1.6 per cent, yetsupport US$3.5 trillion of economic activity. Promote this sector's achievements as a role modelfor othersAviation supports 32 million jobs. To sustain theimportant role that we play in driving the globaleconomy, aviation has committed to the mostaggressive global environment agenda of any globalindustrial sector. We look forward to working withgovernments, under the leadership of ICAO and incoordination with the UNFCCC to remain at theforefront of environmental responsibility. nABOUT THE AUTHORGiovanni Bisignani joined the International AirTransport Association as Director General & CEO inJune 2002. Since that time Mr Bisignani hascompletely re-shaped and re-focused the organisationto better serve its global membership, with a missionto represent and lead the air transport industry IATA isthe global association of the world's internationalairlines. Its 230 members comprise 93 per cent ofschedules in international air traffic.

s defined in the UNWTO Davos Processon Tourism and Climate Change, thetourism sector has an important role toplay in a long-term cooperative action tocombat climate change. Not least because of its globaleconomic and social value, its contribution tosustainable development and its strong relationshipwith climate. The Copenhagen Accord struck at the 2009 Climate Change Conference (COP15), with plans to cap temperature rise, reduce emissions and raise finance, marked a valuable first step towards tackling climate change in the 21st century.While falling short of an ambitious and legally bindingglobal climate agreement, the outcome wasencouraging, particularly if one considers the many players around the negotiating table, withdiffering concerns and objectives. Indeed, as thelargest gathering of heads of state and government in the history of the UN, the conference marked aturning point in how the world confronts climatechange, an issue with profound implications for allpeople. At COP16, this political and civil momentummust not be lost. Too often, however, decisions on climate change are taken in isolation from the broader tourismframework, a consequence, no doubt, of a limitedunderstanding and recognition of tourism's far-reaching potential. Measures directed towards air transport, for example, singled out for separate mitigation treatment under the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), can have detrimental knock-on effects on many countries, particularlydeveloping countries dependent on tourism for incomeand employment. A heightened awareness of tourism's provencontribution to global challenges may assist delegatesto strike a balance between climate change action andsocio-economic development.TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT Tourism represents today an estimated five per cent ofSTRIKING A BALANCE AT COP16: TOURISM ANDCLIMATE CHANGE074TOURISMADR TALEB RIFAI, SECRETARY-GENERAL, UNITED NATIONS WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION (UNWTO)Above:In 2009, emergingeconomies received 410 million internationaltourist arrivalsAbove right:Tourism hasan interest and aresponsibility to reduceglobal emissions