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believe, can revitalise climate change processes and lead to future climate change agreements thattake the biggest step yet towards global health inhuman history. nABOUT THE AUTHORDr Maria P. Neira was appointed Director of theDepartment of Public Health and Environment at the World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerlandin September 2005. Prior to that, she was Vice-Minister of Health and President of the Spanish Food Safety Agency. She had previously held senior positions in WHO as Director of the Control, Prevention and Eradication Programme on Communicable Diseases and as Coordinator of the Global Task Force on Cholera Control. Dr Neira began her career as a field physician andmedical coordinator working with refugees in ElSalvador and Honduras and later as a public healthadviser in Mozambique and Rwanda. Dr Neira is a Spanish national, and a medical doctorby training. She specialised in Endocrinology andMetabolic Diseases and also obtained anInternational Diploma in Emergency Preparednessand Crisis Management. Among her many distinctions, Dr Neira has beenawarded the Médaille de l'Ordre national du Mérite bythe Government of France and is a member of theAcademy of Medicine, Asturias, Spain.Acharya J, Bajgain MS, Subedi PS,"Scaling up biogas in Nepal, what else isneeded." Boiling Point, 50;2005. Atkinson J , Chartier Y , Pessoa-SilvaC , Jensen P , Li Y and Seto WH ,eds. Natural Ventilation for InfectionControl in Health-Care Settings, WorldHealth Organization, 2009. Aytur SA, Rodriguez DA, Evenson KR,Catellier DJ. "Urban containmentpolicies and physical activity: A time-series analysis of metropolitan areas,1990-2002." American Journal ofPreventive Medicine. 2008; 34: 320-332.Campbell-Lendrum D, Molyneux D, et al."Ecosystems and vector borne diseasecontrol", In: Ecosystems and humanwell-being: policy responses, Vol. 3.Findings of the Responses WorkingGroup, Millennium EcosystemAssessment, London, 2005, pp.353-374.Cavill N, Kahlmeier S, Racioppi F, eds.Physical activity and health in Europe:evidence for action. Copenhagen: WorldHealth Organization; 2006.Edwards P, Tsouros AD. A healthy city isan active city: a physical activityplanning guide. Copenhagen: WorldHealth Organization; 2008. Fuel for life: household energy andhealth. Geneva, World HealthOrganization, 2006.Global health risks, mortality andburden of disease attributable toselected major risks. Geneva, WorldHealth Organization, 2009. Kahn Ribeiro S, Kobayashi S, Beuthe M,et al. "Transport and its infrastructure."In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR,Dave R, Meyer LA, editors. ClimateChange 2007: Mitigation Contribution ofWorking Group III to the FourthAssessment Report of theIntergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange. Cambridge University Press;2007.Kroeger et al, Black carbon emissions inAsia: sources, impacts and abatementopportunities, report prepared for theUS Agency for InternationalDevelopment's Regional DevelopmentMission for Asia (USAID/RDMA),Bangkok, Thailand, April 2010.Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, DaveR, Meyer LA (eds). Contribution ofWorking Group III to the FourthAssessment Report of theIntergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange, Cambridge University Press, 2007.Pruss-Ustun A, et al, Preventing diseasethrough healthy environments, towardsan estimate of the environmentalburdenof disease (2004 update of globalstatistics. Annex 2 tables). Geneva,WorldHealth Organization, 2009.Pruss-Ustun A, et al, Safer water, betterhealth - Costs, benefits andsustainability of interventions to protectand promote health. Geneva, WorldHealth Organization, 2008.Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Globaland regional climate changes due toblack carbon. Nature Geoscience.2008; 1:221-227.Remais J, Chen L, Seto, E. Leveragingrural energy investment for parasiticdisease control: shistosome ovainactivation and energy co-benefits ofanaerobic digestors in rural China. PLoSONE, March 2009; 4:3: e4856.Van den Ber, H. Reducing vector-bornedisease by empowering farmers inintegrated vector management. Bulletinof the World Health Organization, Vol.85;7 (2007), pp. 561-566.Wilkinson P, et al., "Public healthbenefits of strategies to reducegreenhouse gas emissions, householdenergy." The Lancet, 374 (9705):1917-1929.Woodcock J, Edwards P, Tonne C, et al."Public health benefits of strategies toreduce greenhouse-gas emissions:urban land transport." The Lancet.2009 Dec 5;374(9705):1930-43.Wright L, Fulton L. "Climate ChangeMitigation and Transport in DevelopingNations." Transport Reviews. 2005;25(6):691-717.REFERENCESHEALTH081

" "A ZERO CARBONENERGY FUTUREIS THE WORLD'SINEVITABLE DESTINATIONancún is all about progress: governmentsneed to deliver an ambitious package of decisions that paves the way to acomprehensive legally-binding climateagreement post-2012 in South Africa. Governmentsneed to agree a timetable and a clear process to get thefinal agreement. Are any countries showing progress?Some are moving in the right direction but othersappear content to lag behind. Among those who have shown some climate action,Germany might have established a lead with a feed-intariff for renewable energy and a 40 per cent emissionsreduction target for 2020. Emerging economies suchas China, India and Brazil are becoming competitors inthe green technology race. The Philippines are movingon wind and geothermal energy. Others seem boggeddown in apathy: Canada and the US are stagnating andhave little to offer in terms of new technologies oreconomic instruments. Not having adopted theirnational climate bill, Japan looks like anotherprospective loser in the race to a new green economy.And Australia's climate policy seems characterised byfalse starts. THE PLAYING FIELDClimate change is transforming the very basis of life onthis planet. Time matters: a global legal framework thatseriously curbs greenhouse gases, establishes andmobilises substantial funding, drives innovationthrough private investors, and supports research,development, and emergency relief, is urgentlyneeded. This is the deal that governments inCopenhagen did not deliver. The only outcome, theCopenhagen Accord, may serve to measure howserious countries are with their commitments. FINANCE First and foremost, Parties need to agree on climatefinance. In Copenhagen, industrialised countriespromised US$100 billion annually for the period2013 to 2020. In Cancun, this promise must betranslated into real commitments of funding that arenew and additional to Oversees Development Aid.Governments should also start formal discussions oninnovative sources of public finance. Private sectorfinance will contribute much of the investmentsneeded in clean energy technologies but it needs to beleveraged by public funding of US$100 billionannually; those public funds are critical for R&D,adaptation and resilience building, new infrastructure,and for construction. Parties can agree on establishingthe "Green Climate Fund" to address the needs ofdeveloping countries and rapidly scale up funding tothe level promised by the Copenhagen Accord. AndCancun should also create a strong and transparentfinancial governance mechanism. RETURN ON INVESTMENTFinancial support could help India to implement itsNational Solar Plan, making it a global leader in solarenergy by installing solar generation capacity of 20 GWby 2020 and of 200 GW by 2050. Total expectedgovernmental funding over 30 years will run to US$21billion and will involve the promotion of commercial-scale solar utility plants, mandated installation of solarrooftop and photovoltaic applications in buildings, andinvestments in the government and public sector. Thisplan is meant to create tens of thousands of new jobsand channel billions of dollars into R&D, infrastructureand production facilities that will strengthen theCAN DO - MUST DO - WILL DO: CLIMATE CHANGE DOES NOT WAIT082GLOBAL VOICESGORDON SHEPHERD, LEADER, WWF GLOBAL CLIMATE INITIATIVECIllustration: ©