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There is a crisis brewing, and not just in Toronto. With more thanhalf of the world's population now living in cities, there is an urgentneed for clean, efficient and innovative solutions to keep urbancentres moving. Effective transportation is an integral factor in creating livablecommunities, and in ensuring stronger ties between clean, healthyneighbourhoods. By contrast, poor transportation infrastructureresults in billions of dollars wasted in time lost as goods and peopleare stuck on the roads, as well as the associated health-care costs.So how did we get here? Although post-war suburban sprawl forever changed the way welive in the GTA and throughout Southern Ontario, concerns aboutmobility and transportation have been on the radar for more thanone hundred years. It's worth remembering that the first proposalsfor subway lines in Toronto were considered as far back as 1910.Much like today, many of these early proposals were ultimatelyrejected due to cost and uncertainty about demand. Morerecently, in the 1960s and 1970s, world-famous urbanist JaneJacobs led the campaign that ultimately cancelled plans to buildthe "Spadina Expressway" through the heart of Toronto. Heropposition to the project, based on citizen's concerns for theproposed freeway's effect on the area's vibrant neighborhoods,was a harbinger of a new-found appreciation for urban health andlivability, and ultimately, for creating a sustainable transportationsystem that would make these types of communities possible. "Transportation infrastructure can make or break communities andregions," says Susan Zielinski, the managing director of SMART,aBy Matthew ChurchMichigan-based research organization that focuses on sustainabletransportation. "Intentionally or not, it can revitalize or it candisrupt and segregate. It comes down to what we think of asinfrastructure and what goals we have in mind when we provideand repair it." A city is more than just a collection of buildings connected bycommon infrastructure. Cities are places where people live, work,go to school and spend much of their leisure time. So thechallenges of transportation and mobility need to be compatiblewith how we live in our communities. Throughout the GTA today,we can see how our communities have been structured around thepersonal automobile - from the wide, expansive roads thatdiscourage walking or biking, to the big-box stores that can onlybe accessed by car. These development and urban planningchoices affect our mobility and the way we interact with otherneighbourhoods and communities. Before automobile ownershipsurged in the 1950s, urban growth took place along major roadcorridors, leaving plots of farmland intact between residential andcommercial developments. As personal car use soared,automobile-centred transportation networks became the norm,with highways and ring roads extending far out from city centres.As populations continued to grow, so did the need for bigger andmore roads - a cycle that continues to this day. "Urban sprawl is not a sustainable pattern of land use," says EricMiller, director of the Cities Centre, an urban planning researchinstitute at the University of Toronto. "It consumes too much land,requires excessive investment in infrastructure of all kinds, andmakes sustainable transportation impossible to provide." And asWe've all been there. Stuck in bumper-to-bumper traffic or huddled in a shelter waitingfor a bus that never comes. Transportation is anissue that touches all of us - whether we're latefor work, or genuinely concerned about theimpact of pollution or rising greenhouse gasemissions. Although Torontonians are hearing alot about transit these days, there remains muchconfusion about the city's plan to improve itstransportation systems. And set against abackdrop of worsening congestion, rising costs,and aging infrastructure, the city's populationcontinues to grow rapidly. 51

52the GTA continues to grow --Mississauga, for example, is 13times more populous today than it was in 1970 --it is becomingincreasingly apparent that it is no longer possible to tackle theregion's transportation challenges by simply building highways oradding more lanes. In 2006, Statistics Canada estimated that the average GTAresident spends 79 minutes per day commuting - an increase of11 minutes from 1992. There is no doubt that figure has crepteven higher since the last census. "A successful city will alwayshave congestion," explains Miller. "The rationale for cities is tobring people together so that they can interact and collectivelyprosper." But he is quick to point out that excessive congestion canbecome a major issue for the health of cities and urban residents. Every additional minute we spend in our car means more timeaway from work, from home and from our family. The economiccost associated with congested roads is equally troubling. Thisyear, congestion is estimated to cost commuters in the regionroughly $3.3 billion, and that figure could double by 2031 ifsignificant changes are not made in the near future. The significant health costs associated with our currenttransportation is equally troubling. In 2008, Metrolinx releasedThe Big Move, a 25-year plan for improving transportation in theGTA and Hamilton regions. To bolster its call for much-neededimprovements, Metrolinx listed the region's annual greenhousegas emissions from passenger transportation at a whopping 2.4tonnes per person. Airborne pollutants related to such emissionsplay a significant role in thousands of illnesses and prematuredeaths related to smog in Toronto. This statistic is based on ourcurrent population of just over 6 million people. What will happen25 years down the road when our population is expected to reach8.6 million? How will our healthcare system be able toaccommodate an increase in hospital admissions due to smog-related illnesses? And who will foot the bill? Beyond facing up to these critical challenges, the first crucial stepin creating a sustainable future in transportation is to worktogether in collaborative ways, and to brainstorm about creativeand effective solutions. That means rethinking everything fromhow we get to the local supermarket to how we engage with ourneighbours in our commutes. That's the impetus behind MOVE: The Transportation Expo, a multi-sensory exposition running June through October at Evergreen BrickWorks in Toronto. Co-presented by Evergreen's Centre for GreenCities, and in partnership with the Institute without Boundaries(IwB) at George Brown College, MOVE will showcase sustainabletransportation solutions, both local and global, expressed throughlarge-scale projections, interactive touchscreens, sound, light, artand dialogue - engaging the visitor as an active participant. "Theway forward must involve devising innovative, actionable ways tosupport mobility," says Stewart Chisholm, director of Evergreen'sCentre for Green Cities. "It must involve both big ideas and smaller,localized thinking, but it's extremely important that we engage thewhole community in the process." To that end, the MOVE expo will feature the creative ideasgenerated from a series of design "charrettes" hosted late last yearat IwB, which brought together more than 200 business leaders,academics, researchers, urban planners and green technologyinnovators in an effort to come up with solutions by the year 2040for 10 key transportation challenges facing the Greater Toronto andHamilton Areas. "We have been examining how city systems willneed to be re-imagined using a light infrastructure model thatreduces carbon impact, balances energy production andconsumption, and creates synergy between cities and theirhinterlands," says IwB director Luigi Ferrara. "The MOVE Expo hasallowed us to bring our interdisciplinary design thinking to theseproblems in a dynamic, creative research setting with professionalsand graduate students." Although many of the challenges featured at the MOVE expo focuson the GTA, the issues and the creative solutions to them are notunique to the region. They both inform and were informed bytransportation innovations from all around the world. Someconcepts capture big-picture change, such as rethinking a future"Beyond the Car," while others highlight current ideas andtechnologies that will keep people moving in a growing metropolis. Throughout the 2012 season of COLLECTIONS, wewill exam in detail some of the transportation-relatedissues so pivotal to Toronto's future.Urban sprawl is not a sustainable pattern of land use. It consumes too much land, requires excessiveinvestment in infrastructure of all kinds, and makessustainable transportation impossible to